Typhoid fever/enteric fever ;lets today discuss about . One question that one may ask is, what is typhoid fever and how is transmitted. This is acute febrile infection/disease caused by Salmonella Typhi bacterium. This disease is transmitted through fecal oral route that is by eating or drinking water/milk that is contaminated by human fecal matter. Another source of infection is food handler and flies they can transmit the disease. This bacterium remain viable in water for long period of times. For one to be infected needs to ingest dose-107 organisms organism. Those organism are eliminated in feces and urine upto 9th weeks during convalescence (the process of getting well)-for convalescent carriers.
Are those who pass Salmonella typhi in feces (fecal carriers) or urine (Urinary carriers) without themselves suffering from the disease. Fecal carrier state is more likely to follow Salmonella typhi infection in 10% of cases above the age of 50 years.In many cases of fecal carriers, the gall bladder is the source of persistent S.typhi infection.
Several factor determine this;
The disease is of slow onset and common symptoms which normally occur early in other words known as prodrome, includes;
On physical examination by a clinician/doctor
First week of illness patient experiences;
In this typhoid state patient shows;
Something to note is that, typhoid shows a wide variation in severity and duration of illness.
Skin and appendage complication are bed sores and alopecia.
It can be through clinical suspicion ;
1. Blood for complete blood count shows low leukocyte count and relative lymphocytosis
2.Blood culture-1st week
Also healthcare provider should trace contacts and investigate epidermic/ disease ourbreak through liaising with disease surveillance team in the hospital so as to contain the spread of typhoid fever.
For severe cases of typhoid fever patient needs to be admitted in hospital for bed rest. Needs proper nursing care to prevent bed sore and oral sepsis. Maintenance of nutrition fluids and electrolytes balance. Diet should be easily digestable low residue type, 1500-1800 calories/day and 2-3 liters of fluids/day. Fever and headache to be relived by paracetamol. Constipation; Opened once in 3-4 days with Glycerine enema. Laxatives are contraindicated. Diarrhoea stops when milk is withdrawn from the diet.
One may use one of the following medication.
2) Intestinal perforation
3) Intestinal haemorrhage
(5)Treatment of carriers
-1 to 2 weeks apart
Click below to consent to the use of the cookie technology provided by vi (video intelligence AG) to personalize content and advertising. For more info please access vi's website.